In his incomplete novel Petrolio, Pier Paolo Pasolini tries to bring back the implosive image of an Italy that is missing Adam’s rib. In the film “La visione di Carlo”, Rosalind Nashashibi starts from that chapter to read the contemporary political context. On the background of a beautiful and poetic Torpignattara suburb, the hypocrisies of Italy that mixes sex and politics, obsessions and prejudices, betray the failure of a middle class that always observes society from a distance. The semiotics of the artist transforms the filmic endeavor in a social and political space. The codes of the Pasolinian text are actualized in the color of the film: reality is painted in red, orange, yellow, green in the eyes of Carlo, but then coming back to an objective color when far from his perceptions. The suspended and indefinite critique come from the interior world of two contemporary genii loci (Daniele Balicco and Andrea Cortellessa) who cross the suburb with a sentiment of non-involvement, dragging the weight of political incapacity to generate a structural change in society, the ethical judgment of Pasolini is ground noise.
Keyword: vir bonus
In the de officiis (In merit to duties), Cicero takes on the matters of political duties. The philosopher underlines the distinction between sapientia (knowledge of wise man) and prudentia (knowledge of a good man): the first coincides with the science of the divine and of the human; the second corresponds with the practical knowledge of what must be searched for and what must be avoided. This last conception originates in some way from the behavioral paradigm which has maturated starting in the 3rd century BCE, within a cultural metamorphosis that merges Rome and the Mediterranean cultures.
The effects of the socio-political synaesthesia between Greece and Rome materialize in the philosophical style of the de officiis of Cicero, a text which is dedicated to his son, but actually a manual of the good citizen. The vir bonus, radicated in the roman conception and distinct from the stoic kalokagathia, is the projection of the antithesis bonus-malus (good-bad): the fides is the credibility that each individual has in relation with the community, the first centuries are not enough to safeguard the ever-growing juridical relations and the new fides coincides with the vir bonus. This is the citizen who lives according to the rules of the res publica: he ethically respects hierarchies, he adheres to honor, follows universal values of civic duties and is honest because he respects the rules.
Roberto Fiori, The Vir Bonus in Cicero’s De Officiis: Greek Philosophy and Roman Legal Sciance, in In Aequum ius. От друзей и коллег к 50-летию профессора Д.В. Дождева Moskow 2014, pp. 187-202